عدد المساهمات : 281
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/12/2008
|موضوع: The Listening Skills مهارات الاستماع الى اللغة الانجليزية الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:30 pm|| |
The Listening Skills (an all too often forgotten skill set)
Listening skills are often divided into two groups:
• bottom up listening skills and
• top down listening skills
Bottom up listening skills, or bottom up processing, refers to the decoding process, the direct decoding of language into meaningful units, from sound waves through the air, in through our ears and into our brain where meaning is decoded. To do this students need to know the code. How the sounds work and how they string together and how the codes can change in different ways when they're strung together. And most students have never been taught how English changes when it's strung together in sentences.
Top-down processing refers to how we use our world knowledge to attribute meaning to language input; how our knowledge of social convention helps us understand meaning.
These are the skills that listening teachers should be teaching in their classes but all too often are not. (Unless of course you are already using our listening textbook!!!) To offer a quote: "An understanding of the role of bottom-up and top-down processes in listening is central to any theory of listening comprehension" (Richards, 1990:50). We agree