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 The process Approach

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مُساهمةموضوع: The process Approach   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:42 am

The process Approach


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This process approach focuses on the act
of writing itself, the means by which the
text is created more than the text itself
It stresses the creativity of the
individual writer, and pays attention to
the development of good writing
practices rather than the imitation of
models
Generally, writing has become a
process of natural generation of ideas with focus
on meaning and communication that
precedes concerns about form and
grammar
It allowed students to manage the
writing task by breaking it into
manageable parts or phases
Prewriting
Drafting
Revising
Editing
Publishing
I will explain each phase
in detail
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مُساهمةموضوع: Pre-writing   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:44 am

Pre-writing


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During the initial stage of process writing
students need to discover and define their ideas
This is the time for the prewriting activities
These activities are used to provide
needed information and to generate ideas and identify feelings
and opinions
Prewriting activities teach students to think carefully about words
and to explore the subject at hand
As learners do this, they discover
that the more they write the more
thinking is expanded and stimulated
Students learn to collect and connect
information,
and eventually begin to express
themselves
in a more informal way
Students, in this stage, write beyond the paragraph level,
paying more attention to
content than to grammar
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مُساهمةموضوع: Types of prewriting activities   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:45 am

Types of prewriting activities


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There are different activities that can
be used at this phase
Brainstorming
One useful in-class prewriting activity is
brainstorming in which teachers give
students a topic or question to think of
as many ideas as they can as quickly as they can; all ideas,
no matter how silly,
are written down
After a large
number of ideas is generated, students
go back and begin to choose those that seem worthy of further thought
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مُساهمةموضوع: Listing   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:47 am

Listing


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Unlike brainstorming, “listing” can be a
quiet and essentially individual activity
In this technique, the student is encouraged to produce as lengthy a list as possible of all the main ideas and
subcategories that come to mind as he or she thinks about the topic at hand
This is an especially useful activity for
students who might be constrained by
undue concern for expressing their
thoughts in grammatically correct
sentences
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مُساهمةموضوع: Clustering   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:48 am

Clustering


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Another activity for getting many ideas
down quickly is “clustering” (or word
mapping), in which students write their
topic in the middle of a sheet or paper and then circle it
The topic could be a single word or phrase
Concentrating on the topic for a few seconds,
they then write a word or phrase the topic makes them think of
They repeat this until they have written as much as they can think of
When the map or web is completed,
the student organizes it into a general
outline to use when beginning the actual
writing
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مُساهمةموضوع: Free writing   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:49 am

Free writing


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Free writing is also a timed prewriting
activity that encourages the students to
write in a stream of unconsciousness
mind They are asked to write about a topic for a
set amount of time (e.g., eight minutes)
without stopping, even if they must simply
repeat the last word or sentence until a
new thought comes to mind
The main objective in free writing is to
capture as many thoughts and ideas as
possible and allow the writing to flow
wherever their minds lead them
The students then read and consider what they wrote, after which they freewrite again
Freed from worrying about
grammar and word choice, students
generate lots of raw material for their
essays
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مُساهمةموضوع: The third phase   الإثنين أبريل 27, 2009 2:51 am

The third phase


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Revising
Many students mistakenly believe that
revising means going over the draft to
correct spelling, punctuation, and
grammar
Actually, revising means looking at
organization, word choice, main points,
support for main ideas, examples,
connections between ideas, and a clear
focus
Among the tools students can employ
for revision are
Reading what they have written aloud,
having another person read it aloud
to them,
and seeking peer review and
response
Reading aloud forces students to
slow their reading, often allowing
them to see what they have written
versus what they think they have
written
Hearing it read by someone else
offers similar benefits
In addition, it tends to increase the
distance between students and their
writing,
encouraging them to be more
objective
Peer review – that is, reading and
response by other students – has the
same advantages, plus the chance for
real readers to consider and respond
to their work-in-progress
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The process Approach
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